BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND COMMITTEES AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Meetings of the Board
During fiscal 2018, the Board met twenty-three times. Each director attended at least 75% of the meetings of the Board and of the meetings of the committees of the Board on which they served during the periods that they served. Although we expect directors to attend each annual meeting of stockholders, we have no formal policy requiring attendance by directors at annual stockholder meetings. All of the members of the Board serving at the time of our 2018 annual meeting of stockholders attended the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders, except Kleanthis G. Xanthopoulos, Ph.D. and Wendell Wierenga, Ph.D.
Committees of the Board
There are currently three active committees of the Board: the Audit Committee, the Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee and the Compensation Committee. Below are descriptions of our three active Board committees.
The Audit Committee regularly meets with our financial and accounting management and independent auditors and is responsible for the selection and engagement of the Companys independent auditors. Additionally, the Audit Committee reviews with the independent auditors the scope and results of the audit engagement, approves professional services provided by the independent auditors, reviews the independence of the independent auditors and reviews the adequacy of the internal accounting controls. The Audit Committee acts under a written charter, a copy of which is available on our website at www.seelostherapeutics.com. The Audit Committee met four times in fiscal 2018, and as of the Record Date consisted of, Daniel J. OConnor, J.D. (Chair), Brian Lian, Ph.D. and Dr. Robin L. Smith, none of whom was an employee of the Company and each of whom met the applicable independence standards promulgated by the Nasdaq Marketplace and those of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). The Board has also determined that Mr. OConnor qualifies as an audit committee financial expert, as defined in Item 407(d)(5) of the SECs Regulation S-K.
The Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee makes recommendations to the Board regarding the election of directors, as well as providing guidance and oversight on matters relating to corporate governance. The Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee did not meet in fiscal 2018, and as of the Record Date, consisted of Brian Lian, Ph.D. (Chair) and Daniel J. OConnor, J.D., neither of whom were an employee of the Company and each of whom met the independence requirements of the Nasdaq Marketplace. The Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee acts under a written charter, which is available on our website at www.seelostherapeutics.com. We have not paid any third party a fee to assist in the process of identifying and evaluating candidates for director, and as of the Record Date we have not received any nominees for director from any stockholder or stockholder group for the Annual Meeting in accordance with the nominating procedures set forth in our Bylaws and the charter for our Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee.
The Compensation Committee determines compensation levels for our executive officers, implements incentive programs for officers, directors and consultants, and administers our equity compensation plans. The Compensation Committee did not meet in fiscal 2018. As of the Record Date, the Compensation Committee consisted of Brian Lian, Ph.D. (Chair) and Dr. Robin L. Smith, neither of whom were an employee of the Company and each of whom met the independence requirements of the Nasdaq Marketplace. The Compensation Committee acts under a written charter, a copy of which is posted on the Companys website at www.seelostherapeutics.com. The Companys independent compensation consultants as well as executive officers and management play important roles in making recommendations and formulating compensation plans for our employees, including the Named Executive Officers. In 2018, the compensation committee determined to engage Radford, an AON Hewitt company, as its independent compensation consultant to provide compensation consulting services. Specifically, for 2018, the compensation committee requested Radford to advise it on a variety of compensation-related issues, including compiling, analyzing and presenting third-party survey data regarding the compensation of executives at comparable companies. Radford did not provide any other services to us in 2018 beyond its engagement as an advisor to the compensation committee on executive compensation matters. After review, the compensation committee has determined that there is no conflict of interest resulting from retaining Radford currently or during the year ended December 31, 2018. In reaching these conclusions, the compensation committee considered the factors set forth in Exchange Act Rule 10C-1.
The Compensation Committee may delegate authority for day-to-day administration and interpretation of the Companys various compensation plans, including the selection of participants, the determination of award levels